1 General provisions
1.0.1 This code is developed with a view to meeting the needs of building structure design in Guangdong province and meeting the requirements of safety, applicability, economy and rationality.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the structural design of constructional engineering in Guangdong province.
1.0.3 This code is developed according to the basic criteria set out in the national standard GB 50153-2008 Unified standard for reliability design of engineering structures.
1.0.4 The actions involved in the design of building structures include direct actions (loads) and indirect actions. This code only specifies loads and thermal actions, and the provisions on variable load are also applicable to thermal actions.
1.0.5 In addition to those specified in this code, the loads involved in the design of building structures shall also comply with those specified in the current relevant standards of the Nation and Guangdong province.
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 permanent load
load whose value does not change with time, or whose change is negligible compared with the average, or whose change is monotonous and can tend to the limit during the service life of structure
2.1.2 variable load
load whose value changes with time and whose change cannot be ignored compared with the average during the service life of structure
2.1.3 accidental load
load that does not necessarily occur in the design service life of structure, but once occurred, its magnitude is very large and its duration is very short
2.1.4 representative values of a load
load values used to check the limit state in design, such as nominal value, combination value, frequent value and quasi-permanent value
2.1.5 design reference period
time selected to determine the representative value of variable load
2.1.6 characteristic value/nominal value
basic representative value of a load, which is the characteristic value of the statistical distribution of the maximum load in the design reference period (such as average, mode, median or tantile)
2.1.7 combination value
value of variable load making the exceeding probability of the combined load effect in the design reference period be consistent with the corresponding probability when the load appears alone, or making the combined structure have uniformly specified reliable index
2.1.8 frequent value
value of variable load of which the total exceeding time is the specified smaller ratio or the exceeding frequency is the specified frequency within the design reference period
2.1.9 quasi-permanent value
value of variable load of which the total exceeding time is about half of the design reference period within the design reference period
2.1.10 design value of a load
product of the representative value of a load and the partial coefficient for load
2.1.11 load effect
reaction of structure or structural member caused by load, such as internal force, deformation and crack
2.1.12 load combination
provisions for the design values of various loads appearing at the same time when designing according to the limit state, in order to ensure the reliability of the structure
2.1.13 fundamental combination
combination of permanent action and variable action when calculating the ultimate limit state
2.1.14 accidental combination
combination of permanent load, variable load and accidental load when calculating the ultimate limit state, and the combination of permanent load and variable load when checking the overall stability of damaged structures after accidental event
2.1.15 characteristic/ nominal combination
combination adopting the nominal value or combination value as the representative value of a load when calculating the limit state of normal use
2.1.16 frequent combination
combination adopting the frequent value or quasi-permanent value as the representative value of load for variable loads when calculating the limit state of normal use
2.1.17 quasi-permanent combination
combination adopting the quasi-permanent value as the representative value of load for variable loads when calculating the limit state of normal use
2.1.18 equivalent uniform live load
actual load distributed discontinuously on the floor in structural design, which is generally replaced by equivalent uniform live load; the equivalent uniform live load refers to the uniformly distributed load whose load effect on the structure can be consistent with the actual load effect
2.1.19 tributary area
floor area used to calculate the load of members in consideration of the deduction of uniformly distributed load of beams, columns and other members
2.1.20 dynamic coefficient
equivalent coefficient of a structure or member subjected to dynamic load adopted for static design; its value is the ratio of the maximum dynamic effect of the structure or member to the corresponding static effect
2.1.21 reference snow pressure
reference pressure of snow load, which is generally determined by the maximum value once every 50 years obtained through probability statistics of the observed data of snow self-weight on the local open flat ground
2.1.22 reference wind pressure
reference pressure of wind load, which is generally determined using the Bernoulli equation (E.2.4) by the maximum value once every 50 years obtained through probability statistics of the observed data of the average wind speed within 10min at a height of 10m above the local open flat ground, in consideration of the corresponding air density
2.1.23 terrain roughness
grade used to describe the distribution of irregular obstacles on the ground, when the wind blows over the ground within 2km before reaching the structure
2.1.24 thermal action
action caused by temperature change in structure or structural member
2.1.25 shade air temperature
temperature measured in a standard louver box and recorded in hours
2.1.26 reference air temperature
reference value of temperature, which is determined through statistics according to the average value of the highest temperature in the month with the highest temperature and the average value of the lowest temperature in the month with the lowest temperature in the past years, based on the monthly average maximum temperature and monthly average minimum temperature once every 50 years
2.1.27 uniform temperature
constant temperature throughout the cross section of the structural member, which dominates expansion or contraction of structural member
2.1.28 initial temperature
temperature at which a structure forms an integrally restrained structural system at a certain stage of construction, which is also called the closure temperature
2.1.29 wind direction coefficient
correction factor for different azimuth of wind pressure in different recurrence intervals, in consideration of the joint probability distribution of wind speed and wind direction, which is usually used in combination with wind tunnel test data
2.2 Symbols
2.2.1 Representative values of a load and load combination
Ad——the characteristic value of accidental load;
C——the specified limit of structure or member in normal use;
Gk——the characteristic value of permanent load;
Qk——the characteristic value of variable load;
Rd——the design resistance value of structural member
SAd——the characteristic value of accidental load effect;
SGk——the characteristic value of permanent load effect;
SQk——the characteristic value of variable load effect;
Sd——the design value of load effect combination;
γ0——the structural importance factor;
γG——the partial coefficient of permanent load;
γQ——the partial coefficient of variable load;
γLj——the adjustment factor of variable load with design service life taken into consideration;
ψc——the combination value coefficient of variable load;
ψf ——the frequent value coefficient of variable load;
ψq ——the quasi-permanent value coefficient of variable load.
2.2.2 Wind loads
αD, Z——the acceleration of wind induced along-wind vibration of high-rise buildings at z height (m/s2);
αL, z——the acceleration of wind induced across-wind vibration of high-rise buildings at z height (m/s2);
B——the width of windward side of structure;
Bz——the background component factor of the fluctuating wind load;
C′L——the across-wind wind factor;
C′T——the wind-induced torque coefficient;
Cm——the angle edge correction factor of across-wind wind;
Csm——the angle edge correction factor of across-wind wind power spectrum;
D——the plane depth (along-wind dimension) or diameter of structure;
f1—— the first-order natural frequency of the structure;
fT1—— the first-order torsional natural frequency of the structure;
——the conversion frequency;
——the torsional conversion frequency;
FDk——the characteristic value of along-wind wind per unit height;
FLk——the characteristic value of across-wind wind per unit height;
TTk——the characteristic value of wind-induced torque per unit height;
g——the gravitational acceleration, or peak factor;
H——the height of the top of the structure or mountain;
I10——the nominal turbulence intensity of wind at 10m high;
KL——the across-wind mode correction factor;
KT——the torsional mode correction factor;
R——the resonant component factor of the fluctuating wind load;
RL——the wind induced across-wind vibration resonance factor;
RT——the wind induced torsional vibration resonance factor;
Re——the Reynolds number;
St——the Strouhal number;
T1——the first-order natural vibration period of the structure;
TL1——the first-order across-wind natural vibration period of the structure;
TT1——the first-order torsional natural vibration period of the structure;
w0——the reference wind pressure;
wk——the characteristic value of wind load;
wLk——the characteristic value of equivalent wind load for across-wind vibration;
wTk——the characteristic value of equivalent wind load for torsional vibration;
α——the angle of gradient, or wind speed profile index;
βz——the wind vibration coefficient at the height of z;
βgz——the gustiness factor;
vcr——the critical wind speed of across-wind resonance;
vH——the wind speed at the top of the structure;
μz——the exposure factor for wind pressure;
μs——the shape factor of wind load;
μs1——the local shape factor of wind load;
μ′s1——the local shape factor of louver wind load;
η——the wind load topography and landform correction factor;
ηa——the fluctuation coefficient of acceleration of wind induced along-wind vibration;
——the air density;
ρx, ρz——the correlation coefficient of fluctuating wind load in horizontal direction and vertical direction;
z——the structural mode shape coefficient;
ζ——the structural damping ratio;
ζa——the across-wind aerodynamic damping ratio.
2.2.3 Thermal action
Tmax, Tmin——the monthly average maximum temperature and monthly average minimum temperature;
Ts, max, Ts, min——the highest average temperature of structure and the lowest average temperature of structure;
T0, max, T0, min——the highest initial temperature of structure and the lowest initial temperature of structure;
Tk——the characteristic value of uniform temperature action;
αT——the linear expansion factor of material.
2.2.4 Accidental load
AV——the area of through-hole plate (m2);
Kdc——the dynamic coefficient for calculating equivalent uniform static load of explosion;
m——the mass of automotive or helicopter;
Pk——the characteristic value of impact load;
pc——the maximum pressure of uniform dynamic load of explosion;
pv——the approved failure pressure of through-hole plate;
qce——the characteristic value of equivalent uniform static load of explosion;
t——the impact time;
v——the automotive speed;
V——the volume of explosion space.
2.2.5 Other loads
W——the crowd load per unit area;
L——the loading length;
B——the width of half bridge;
Sk——the characteristic value of snow load;
S0——the reference snow pressure;
μr——the snow distribution coefficient of roof;
ρ ——the snow density.
1 General provisions
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.2 Symbols
3 Classification and combination of loads
3.1 Classification of loads and representative values of loads
3.2 Combination of loads
4 Permanent load
5 Live load on floors and roofs
5.1 Uniformly distributed live loads on floors in civil buildings
5.2 Live loads on floors in industrial buildings
5.3 Live loads on roofs
5.4 Ash load on roofs
5.5 Construction and maintenance loads and horizontal and vertical loads on railings
5.6 Dynamic coefficient
6 Crane load
6.1 Vertical and horizontal crane loads
6.2 Combination of multi-cranes
6.3 Dynamic coefficients of crane loads
6.4 Combination value, frequent value and quasi-permanent value of crane load
7 Wind load
7.1 Characteristic value of wind load and reference wind pressure
7.2 Exposure factor for wind pressure
7.3 Shape factor of wind load
7.4 Wind load of building envelope
7.5 Wind vibration of high-rise structure
7.6 Wind vibration of roof structure
8 Thermal action
8.1 General
8.2 Reference air temperature
8.3 Uniform thermal action
9 Accidental loads
9.1 General
9.2 Explosion
9.3 Impact
10 Other loads
10.1 Load of footbridge
10.2 Water pressure of underground structure
10.3 Snow load
Annex A Self-weight and classification of commonly used materials and structural members
Annex B Live load values of fire engine taking different slab span and influence of covered soil thickness under consideration
Annex C Determine method of equivalent uniformly distributed live loads on floors
Annex D Live loads on floors of industrial buildings
Annex E Determination method of reference snow pressure, wind pressure and temperature
Annex F Empirical formula for fundamental natural period of structure
Annex G Approximate mode shape coefficient of structure
Annex H Equivalent wind load for cross-wind and torsional vibration
Annex J Acceleration of along-wind and cross-wind vibration for high-rise buildings
Annex K Judging method of terrain roughness category
Annex L Wind tunnel test guidelines
Annex M Wind vibration coefficient of unilateral independence cantilevered roof
Explanation of wording in this code
List of quoted codes
1 General provisions
1.0.1 This code is developed with a view to meeting the needs of building structure design in Guangdong province and meeting the requirements of safety, applicability, economy and rationality.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the structural design of constructional engineering in Guangdong province.
1.0.3 This code is developed according to the basic criteria set out in the national standard GB 50153-2008 Unified standard for reliability design of engineering structures.
1.0.4 The actions involved in the design of building structures include direct actions (loads) and indirect actions. This code only specifies loads and thermal actions, and the provisions on variable load are also applicable to thermal actions.
1.0.5 In addition to those specified in this code, the loads involved in the design of building structures shall also comply with those specified in the current relevant standards of the Nation and Guangdong province.
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 permanent load
load whose value does not change with time, or whose change is negligible compared with the average, or whose change is monotonous and can tend to the limit during the service life of structure
2.1.2 variable load
load whose value changes with time and whose change cannot be ignored compared with the average during the service life of structure
2.1.3 accidental load
load that does not necessarily occur in the design service life of structure, but once occurred, its magnitude is very large and its duration is very short
2.1.4 representative values of a load
load values used to check the limit state in design, such as nominal value, combination value, frequent value and quasi-permanent value
2.1.5 design reference period
time selected to determine the representative value of variable load
2.1.6 characteristic value/nominal value
basic representative value of a load, which is the characteristic value of the statistical distribution of the maximum load in the design reference period (such as average, mode, median or tantile)
2.1.7 combination value
value of variable load making the exceeding probability of the combined load effect in the design reference period be consistent with the corresponding probability when the load appears alone, or making the combined structure have uniformly specified reliable index
2.1.8 frequent value
value of variable load of which the total exceeding time is the specified smaller ratio or the exceeding frequency is the specified frequency within the design reference period
2.1.9 quasi-permanent value
value of variable load of which the total exceeding time is about half of the design reference period within the design reference period
2.1.10 design value of a load
product of the representative value of a load and the partial coefficient for load
2.1.11 load effect
reaction of structure or structural member caused by load, such as internal force, deformation and crack
2.1.12 load combination
provisions for the design values of various loads appearing at the same time when designing according to the limit state, in order to ensure the reliability of the structure
2.1.13 fundamental combination
combination of permanent action and variable action when calculating the ultimate limit state
2.1.14 accidental combination
combination of permanent load, variable load and accidental load when calculating the ultimate limit state, and the combination of permanent load and variable load when checking the overall stability of damaged structures after accidental event
2.1.15 characteristic/ nominal combination
combination adopting the nominal value or combination value as the representative value of a load when calculating the limit state of normal use
2.1.16 frequent combination
combination adopting the frequent value or quasi-permanent value as the representative value of load for variable loads when calculating the limit state of normal use
2.1.17 quasi-permanent combination
combination adopting the quasi-permanent value as the representative value of load for variable loads when calculating the limit state of normal use
2.1.18 equivalent uniform live load
actual load distributed discontinuously on the floor in structural design, which is generally replaced by equivalent uniform live load; the equivalent uniform live load refers to the uniformly distributed load whose load effect on the structure can be consistent with the actual load effect
2.1.19 tributary area
floor area used to calculate the load of members in consideration of the deduction of uniformly distributed load of beams, columns and other members
2.1.20 dynamic coefficient
equivalent coefficient of a structure or member subjected to dynamic load adopted for static design; its value is the ratio of the maximum dynamic effect of the structure or member to the corresponding static effect
2.1.21 reference snow pressure
reference pressure of snow load, which is generally determined by the maximum value once every 50 years obtained through probability statistics of the observed data of snow self-weight on the local open flat ground
2.1.22 reference wind pressure
reference pressure of wind load, which is generally determined using the Bernoulli equation (E.2.4) by the maximum value once every 50 years obtained through probability statistics of the observed data of the average wind speed within 10min at a height of 10m above the local open flat ground, in consideration of the corresponding air density
2.1.23 terrain roughness
grade used to describe the distribution of irregular obstacles on the ground, when the wind blows over the ground within 2km before reaching the structure
2.1.24 thermal action
action caused by temperature change in structure or structural member
2.1.25 shade air temperature
temperature measured in a standard louver box and recorded in hours
2.1.26 reference air temperature
reference value of temperature, which is determined through statistics according to the average value of the highest temperature in the month with the highest temperature and the average value of the lowest temperature in the month with the lowest temperature in the past years, based on the monthly average maximum temperature and monthly average minimum temperature once every 50 years
2.1.27 uniform temperature
constant temperature throughout the cross section of the structural member, which dominates expansion or contraction of structural member
2.1.28 initial temperature
temperature at which a structure forms an integrally restrained structural system at a certain stage of construction, which is also called the closure temperature
2.1.29 wind direction coefficient
correction factor for different azimuth of wind pressure in different recurrence intervals, in consideration of the joint probability distribution of wind speed and wind direction, which is usually used in combination with wind tunnel test data
2.2 Symbols
2.2.1 Representative values of a load and load combination
Ad——the characteristic value of accidental load;
C——the specified limit of structure or member in normal use;
Gk——the characteristic value of permanent load;
Qk——the characteristic value of variable load;
Rd——the design resistance value of structural member
SAd——the characteristic value of accidental load effect;
SGk——the characteristic value of permanent load effect;
SQk——the characteristic value of variable load effect;
Sd——the design value of load effect combination;
γ0——the structural importance factor;
γG——the partial coefficient of permanent load;
γQ——the partial coefficient of variable load;
γLj——the adjustment factor of variable load with design service life taken into consideration;
ψc——the combination value coefficient of variable load;
ψf ——the frequent value coefficient of variable load;
ψq ——the quasi-permanent value coefficient of variable load.
2.2.2 Wind loads
αD, Z——the acceleration of wind induced along-wind vibration of high-rise buildings at z height (m/s2);
αL, z——the acceleration of wind induced across-wind vibration of high-rise buildings at z height (m/s2);
B——the width of windward side of structure;
Bz——the background component factor of the fluctuating wind load;
C′L——the across-wind wind factor;
C′T——the wind-induced torque coefficient;
Cm——the angle edge correction factor of across-wind wind;
Csm——the angle edge correction factor of across-wind wind power spectrum;
D——the plane depth (along-wind dimension) or diameter of structure;
f1—— the first-order natural frequency of the structure;
fT1—— the first-order torsional natural frequency of the structure;
——the conversion frequency;
——the torsional conversion frequency;
FDk——the characteristic value of along-wind wind per unit height;
FLk——the characteristic value of across-wind wind per unit height;
TTk——the characteristic value of wind-induced torque per unit height;
g——the gravitational acceleration, or peak factor;
H——the height of the top of the structure or mountain;
I10——the nominal turbulence intensity of wind at 10m high;
KL——the across-wind mode correction factor;
KT——the torsional mode correction factor;
R——the resonant component factor of the fluctuating wind load;
RL——the wind induced across-wind vibration resonance factor;
RT——the wind induced torsional vibration resonance factor;
Re——the Reynolds number;
St——the Strouhal number;
T1——the first-order natural vibration period of the structure;
TL1——the first-order across-wind natural vibration period of the structure;
TT1——the first-order torsional natural vibration period of the structure;
w0——the reference wind pressure;
wk——the characteristic value of wind load;
wLk——the characteristic value of equivalent wind load for across-wind vibration;
wTk——the characteristic value of equivalent wind load for torsional vibration;
α——the angle of gradient, or wind speed profile index;
βz——the wind vibration coefficient at the height of z;
βgz——the gustiness factor;
vcr——the critical wind speed of across-wind resonance;
vH——the wind speed at the top of the structure;
μz——the exposure factor for wind pressure;
μs——the shape factor of wind load;
μs1——the local shape factor of wind load;
μ′s1——the local shape factor of louver wind load;
η——the wind load topography and landform correction factor;
ηa——the fluctuation coefficient of acceleration of wind induced along-wind vibration;
——the air density;
ρx, ρz——the correlation coefficient of fluctuating wind load in horizontal direction and vertical direction;
z——the structural mode shape coefficient;
ζ——the structural damping ratio;
ζa——the across-wind aerodynamic damping ratio.
2.2.3 Thermal action
Tmax, Tmin——the monthly average maximum temperature and monthly average minimum temperature;
Ts, max, Ts, min——the highest average temperature of structure and the lowest average temperature of structure;
T0, max, T0, min——the highest initial temperature of structure and the lowest initial temperature of structure;
Tk——the characteristic value of uniform temperature action;
αT——the linear expansion factor of material.
2.2.4 Accidental load
AV——the area of through-hole plate (m2);
Kdc——the dynamic coefficient for calculating equivalent uniform static load of explosion;
m——the mass of automotive or helicopter;
Pk——the characteristic value of impact load;
pc——the maximum pressure of uniform dynamic load of explosion;
pv——the approved failure pressure of through-hole plate;
qce——the characteristic value of equivalent uniform static load of explosion;
t——the impact time;
v——the automotive speed;
V——the volume of explosion space.
2.2.5 Other loads
W——the crowd load per unit area;
L——the loading length;
B——the width of half bridge;
Sk——the characteristic value of snow load;
S0——the reference snow pressure;
μr——the snow distribution coefficient of roof;
ρ ——the snow density.
Contents of DBJ 15-101-2014
1 General provisions
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.2 Symbols
3 Classification and combination of loads
3.1 Classification of loads and representative values of loads
3.2 Combination of loads
4 Permanent load
5 Live load on floors and roofs
5.1 Uniformly distributed live loads on floors in civil buildings
5.2 Live loads on floors in industrial buildings
5.3 Live loads on roofs
5.4 Ash load on roofs
5.5 Construction and maintenance loads and horizontal and vertical loads on railings
5.6 Dynamic coefficient
6 Crane load
6.1 Vertical and horizontal crane loads
6.2 Combination of multi-cranes
6.3 Dynamic coefficients of crane loads
6.4 Combination value, frequent value and quasi-permanent value of crane load
7 Wind load
7.1 Characteristic value of wind load and reference wind pressure
7.2 Exposure factor for wind pressure
7.3 Shape factor of wind load
7.4 Wind load of building envelope
7.5 Wind vibration of high-rise structure
7.6 Wind vibration of roof structure
8 Thermal action
8.1 General
8.2 Reference air temperature
8.3 Uniform thermal action
9 Accidental loads
9.1 General
9.2 Explosion
9.3 Impact
10 Other loads
10.1 Load of footbridge
10.2 Water pressure of underground structure
10.3 Snow load
Annex A Self-weight and classification of commonly used materials and structural members
Annex B Live load values of fire engine taking different slab span and influence of covered soil thickness under consideration
Annex C Determine method of equivalent uniformly distributed live loads on floors
Annex D Live loads on floors of industrial buildings
Annex E Determination method of reference snow pressure, wind pressure and temperature
Annex F Empirical formula for fundamental natural period of structure
Annex G Approximate mode shape coefficient of structure
Annex H Equivalent wind load for cross-wind and torsional vibration
Annex J Acceleration of along-wind and cross-wind vibration for high-rise buildings
Annex K Judging method of terrain roughness category
Annex L Wind tunnel test guidelines
Annex M Wind vibration coefficient of unilateral independence cantilevered roof
Explanation of wording in this code
List of quoted codes