Test procedures for three-phase synchronous machines
1 Scope
This standard describes the test procedures for three-phase synchronous machines, including the general test, determination of efficiency, thermal test, determination of voltage regulation performance under self-excitation constant voltage, determination of torque and rotational inertia, excess current and mechanical strength test, negative sequence current bearing capacity test, determination of dynamic characteristics of stator winding end and test for determining parameters, etc.
It is applicable to three-phase synchronous machines with rated power of 1kW (kVA) or above.
2 Normative references
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 755-2019 Rotating electrical machines - Rating and performance
GB/T 7409.3 Excitation system for synchronous electrical machines - Technical requirements of excitation system for large and medium synchronous generators
GB/T 10068 Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft heights 56mm and higher - Measurement, evaluation and limits of vibration severity
GB/T 10069.1 Measurement of the airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical machines and the noise limits - Part 1: Method for the measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical machines
GB/T 10585 Fundamental requirements of excitation systems of medium and small synchronous machines
GB/T 15548 General specification for three-phase synchronous generators driven by reciprocating internal combustion engine
GB/T 21211 Equivalent loading and superposition techniques - Indirect testing to determine temperature rise of rotating electrical machines
GB/T 22715 Impulse voltage withstand levels of form-wound stator coils for rotating a.c. machines
GB/T 22719.1 Interturn insulation of random-wound winding for AC low-voltage electrical machines - Part 1: Test methods
GB/T 22719.2 Interturn insulation of random-wound winding for AC low-voltage electrical machines - Part 2: Test limits
GB/T 25442 Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency of rotation electrical machines from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)
GB/T 34861 Specific methods for determining separate losses of large machines from tests
JB/T 6227 Checking methods and evaluation of sealing of hydrogen-cooled electrical machines
JB/T 7836.1 Electric heater for electrical machine - Part 1: General technique specifications
JB/T 8445 Negative-sequence current withstand capacity of three-phase synchronous machines - Test method
JB/T 8446 Methods for the determination of interturn short-circuit in the rotor winding of cylindrical synchronous generators
JB/T 8990 Modal test analyses and natural frequency measurement methods of large turbo-generators on stator end windings and evaluation criteria
JB/T 10500.1 Embedded thermometer resistance for electrical machines - Part 1: General specification, measuring methods and examine rule
IEC 60051
(All parts) Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their accessories
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 755-2019, GB/T 25442, GB/T 34861 and the following apply.
3.1
routine test
test to which each individual machine is subjected during or after manufacture to ascertain whether it complies with certain criteria
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-53-02]
3.2
load
all the values of the, in case of a generator, electrical and, in case of a motor, mechanical quantities that signify the demand made on a rotating machine by an electrical circuit or a mechanism at a given instant
3.3
no-load
state of a machine rotating with zero output power (but under otherwise normal operating conditions)
3.4
thermal equilibrium
state reached when the temperature rises of the heating parts of the machine do not vary by more than a gradient of 1K per 0.5h
3.5
efficiency
ratio of output power to input power expressed in the same unit
Note: Generally, it is expressed as a percentage.
3.6
initial starting impedance (synchronous motors)
quotient of the applied armature voltage and the sustained average armature current, the machine being at standstill
3.7
direct-axis synchronous reactance
quotient of the sustained value of that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis armature winding flux due to direct-axis armature current, and the value of the fundamental AC component of this current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-07]
3.8
direct-axis transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis armature winding flux, and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of direct-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed and the high decrement components during the first cycles being excluded
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-09]
3.9
direct-axis sub-transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis armature winding flux, and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of direct-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-11]
3.10
quadrature-axis synchronous reactance
quotient of the sustained value of that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total quadrature-axis armature winding due to quadrature-axis armature current, and the value of the fundamental AC component of this current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-08]
3.11
quadrature-axis transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total quadrature-axis armature winding flux, and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of quadrature-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed and the high decrement components during the first cycles being excluded
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-10]
3.12
quadrature-axis sub-transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total quadrature-axis armature winding flux and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of quadrature-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-12]
3.13
negative sequence reactance
quotient of the reactive fundamental component of negative sequence armature voltage, due to the sinusoidal negative sequence armature current at rated frequency, by the value of that component of current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-15]
3.14
zero sequence reactance
quotient of the reactive fundamental component of zero sequence armature voltage, due to the presence of fundamental zero sequence armature current at rated frequency, by the value of that component of current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-16]
3.15
Potier reactance
reactance taking into account the leakage of the field winding, on load and in the over-excited region, which is used in place of the armature leakage reactance to calculate the excitation on load by means of the Potier method
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-13]
3.16
armature-leakage reactance
quotient of the reactive fundamental component of armature voltage due to the leakage flux of armature winding and the fundamental component of armature current, the machine running at rated speed
3.17
armature resistance
resistance measured by direct current between terminals of the armature winding, referred to a certain winding temperature
Note: It is expressed as per phase value.
Foreword i
1 Scope
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
4 Symbols
5 Basic requirements
6 General test
7 Determination of efficiency
8 Thermal test
9 Determination of voltage regulation performance under self-excitation constant voltage
10 Determination of torque and rotational inertia
11 Excess current and mechanical strength test
12 Negative sequence current bearing capacity test
13 Determination of dynamic characteristics of stator winding end
14 Tests for determining parameters
15 Determination of parameters
Annex A (Normative) Calculation of △θ value when the temperature of excitation winding rises by no-load short circuit method
Annex B (Normative) Calculation scheme for frequency response characteristics
Annex C (Normative) Common machine models
Bibliography
Test procedures for three-phase synchronous machines
1 Scope
This standard describes the test procedures for three-phase synchronous machines, including the general test, determination of efficiency, thermal test, determination of voltage regulation performance under self-excitation constant voltage, determination of torque and rotational inertia, excess current and mechanical strength test, negative sequence current bearing capacity test, determination of dynamic characteristics of stator winding end and test for determining parameters, etc.
It is applicable to three-phase synchronous machines with rated power of 1kW (kVA) or above.
2 Normative references
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 755-2019 Rotating electrical machines - Rating and performance
GB/T 7409.3 Excitation system for synchronous electrical machines - Technical requirements of excitation system for large and medium synchronous generators
GB/T 10068 Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft heights 56mm and higher - Measurement, evaluation and limits of vibration severity
GB/T 10069.1 Measurement of the airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical machines and the noise limits - Part 1: Method for the measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical machines
GB/T 10585 Fundamental requirements of excitation systems of medium and small synchronous machines
GB/T 15548 General specification for three-phase synchronous generators driven by reciprocating internal combustion engine
GB/T 21211 Equivalent loading and superposition techniques - Indirect testing to determine temperature rise of rotating electrical machines
GB/T 22715 Impulse voltage withstand levels of form-wound stator coils for rotating a.c. machines
GB/T 22719.1 Interturn insulation of random-wound winding for AC low-voltage electrical machines - Part 1: Test methods
GB/T 22719.2 Interturn insulation of random-wound winding for AC low-voltage electrical machines - Part 2: Test limits
GB/T 25442 Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency of rotation electrical machines from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)
GB/T 34861 Specific methods for determining separate losses of large machines from tests
JB/T 6227 Checking methods and evaluation of sealing of hydrogen-cooled electrical machines
JB/T 7836.1 Electric heater for electrical machine - Part 1: General technique specifications
JB/T 8445 Negative-sequence current withstand capacity of three-phase synchronous machines - Test method
JB/T 8446 Methods for the determination of interturn short-circuit in the rotor winding of cylindrical synchronous generators
JB/T 8990 Modal test analyses and natural frequency measurement methods of large turbo-generators on stator end windings and evaluation criteria
JB/T 10500.1 Embedded thermometer resistance for electrical machines - Part 1: General specification, measuring methods and examine rule
IEC 60051
(All parts) Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their accessories
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 755-2019, GB/T 25442, GB/T 34861 and the following apply.
3.1
routine test
test to which each individual machine is subjected during or after manufacture to ascertain whether it complies with certain criteria
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-53-02]
3.2
load
all the values of the, in case of a generator, electrical and, in case of a motor, mechanical quantities that signify the demand made on a rotating machine by an electrical circuit or a mechanism at a given instant
3.3
no-load
state of a machine rotating with zero output power (but under otherwise normal operating conditions)
3.4
thermal equilibrium
state reached when the temperature rises of the heating parts of the machine do not vary by more than a gradient of 1K per 0.5h
3.5
efficiency
ratio of output power to input power expressed in the same unit
Note: Generally, it is expressed as a percentage.
3.6
initial starting impedance (synchronous motors)
quotient of the applied armature voltage and the sustained average armature current, the machine being at standstill
3.7
direct-axis synchronous reactance
quotient of the sustained value of that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis armature winding flux due to direct-axis armature current, and the value of the fundamental AC component of this current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-07]
3.8
direct-axis transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis armature winding flux, and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of direct-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed and the high decrement components during the first cycles being excluded
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-09]
3.9
direct-axis sub-transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total direct-axis armature winding flux, and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of direct-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-11]
3.10
quadrature-axis synchronous reactance
quotient of the sustained value of that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total quadrature-axis armature winding due to quadrature-axis armature current, and the value of the fundamental AC component of this current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-08]
3.11
quadrature-axis transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total quadrature-axis armature winding flux, and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of quadrature-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed and the high decrement components during the first cycles being excluded
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-10]
3.12
quadrature-axis sub-transient reactance
quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in that fundamental AC component of armature voltage, which is produced by the total quadrature-axis armature winding flux and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamental AC component of quadrature-axis armature current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-12]
3.13
negative sequence reactance
quotient of the reactive fundamental component of negative sequence armature voltage, due to the sinusoidal negative sequence armature current at rated frequency, by the value of that component of current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-15]
3.14
zero sequence reactance
quotient of the reactive fundamental component of zero sequence armature voltage, due to the presence of fundamental zero sequence armature current at rated frequency, by the value of that component of current, the machine running at rated speed
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-16]
3.15
Potier reactance
reactance taking into account the leakage of the field winding, on load and in the over-excited region, which is used in place of the armature leakage reactance to calculate the excitation on load by means of the Potier method
[Source: GB/T 2900.25-2008, 411-50-13]
3.16
armature-leakage reactance
quotient of the reactive fundamental component of armature voltage due to the leakage flux of armature winding and the fundamental component of armature current, the machine running at rated speed
3.17
armature resistance
resistance measured by direct current between terminals of the armature winding, referred to a certain winding temperature
Note: It is expressed as per phase value.
Contents of GB/T 1029-2021
Foreword i
1 Scope
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
4 Symbols
5 Basic requirements
6 General test
7 Determination of efficiency
8 Thermal test
9 Determination of voltage regulation performance under self-excitation constant voltage
10 Determination of torque and rotational inertia
11 Excess current and mechanical strength test
12 Negative sequence current bearing capacity test
13 Determination of dynamic characteristics of stator winding end
14 Tests for determining parameters
15 Determination of parameters
Annex A (Normative) Calculation of △θ value when the temperature of excitation winding rises by no-load short circuit method
Annex B (Normative) Calculation scheme for frequency response characteristics
Annex C (Normative) Common machine models
Bibliography